Elías Salvador1; Víctor R. Gueva

  1Dept. of Animal Production, National San Luis Gonzaga University, Ica, Perú

2Dept. of Nutrition, National Agrarian University, La Molina-Lima, Perú.

5-9 de Agosto del 2012-Salvador – Bahia-Brasil


The egg-laying hens don’t have a protein requirement per se, if not rather of some levels and adapted balance of the different amino acids. The requirements of amino acids cannot be seen as a fixed concentration in the diet, it should be considered the relationship among the good balance of these in the diets, as well as the relationship between the consumption of amino acids and the production of eggs. However, most of works in ideal protein have been carried out in meat chickens. In our country there are not works reported in egg-laying hens and not being reports regarding the convenience of formulating based on Corn-Soy or fish Corn-Soy-meal. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate four profiles of ideal protein and two basal diets with and without fish meal on performance, quality of egg and economic return of egg-laying hens ISA Brown.


This study was carried out in a Poultry Farm in Peru, for 16 weeks, during the months of November to February, with environmental temperature of 25 to 30 centigrade grades. 448 laying hens ISA Brown of 40 weeks of age was used and distributed in layer cages, each bird had approximately 436 cm2 of floor space. Eight diets were elaborated according to 4 profiles of ideal protein of 4 charts of recommendations (Rostagno et al., 2005; DEGUSSA (2006); N.R.C. (1994) and ISA Brown (2006) and according to two basal diets with Corn-Soy meal or Corn-Soy meal- Fishmeal. All the diets were isocalóricas (2.75 Mcal EM/kg). The level of total sulfur amino acids (Met+Cist.) was fixed in 0.71% in all the diets, next from this level the relationship with the other essential amino acids of each one of the 4 profiles ideals mentioned was established. The productive parameters, egg quality and economic return were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, in arrangement combinatory trifactorial 4 x 2 x 4 (4 profiles of ideal protein x 2 basal diets x 4 periods of evaluation) was utilized.  An ANOVA was performed by General Lineal Model (GLM) procedures (SAS Institute, 1998). Differences among treatment means were analyzed using the test of Tukey. Significance of difference was based on the probability of type I error set at P≤0.05. The research was conducted under the ethical standards of the University.


 Table 1. Performance of laying hens fed with 4 profiles of ideal protein

Egg production

Feed conversion

Feed intake

Egg mass







($/kg egg)

Rostagno , et al., 2005

89.945 a


111.367 a




91.472 a

1.932 a

113.938 a



N.R.C., 1994

90.896 a

1.909 a

110.670 ab




85.569 b

1.906 a

106.631 b




The production of eggs was better (P<0.05) for egg-laying fed with the profiles from Rostagno et al., 2005, DEGUSSA (2006) and N.R.C. (1994) that of ISA Brown (2006).  The reduction in egg production may be due to reduced feed intake of the group of the profile of ISA Brown. Treonina:Lys ratio was 73.7%. The ratio in the other treatment was between 65 to 67%. These differences could cause an imbalance of the amino acid and reduced feed intake. Davis and Austic (1994) found that the activity of the threonine dehydrogenase (TDH) in the isolated hepatic mitochondria of chicken it increased significantly low conditions of threonine imbalance in the diet that  leads to the threonine catabolism to glycine and acetil CoA and decrease at level of the blood  and probably also to an increment in the competition for the transport of the restrictive amino acid to the brain, since the other amino acids that share the same system of transport are high (Peng et al., 1972) being in a decrease of its concentration in the brain associated with an inhibition of the feed intake (Tews et al., 1979). The profiles of ideal protein had no effect (P>0.05) on the feed conversion, this agrees with the study from Pavan et al. (2005) who reported similar responses in feed conversion. The egg weight was not affected significantly (P>0.05) for the profiles of ideal protein neither for the basal diets. Hens consuming the diet with the profile of DEGUSSA (2006) produced a greater egg mass than hens consuming diets with the profile of ISA Brown (2006). Like was explained previously, the Threonine: Lysine ratio was of 65% for the profile of DEGUSSA (2006) nearer value to the Threonine: Lysine ideal ratio in the egg that is of 68% (Jais et at., 1995), while this ratio in the profile of ISA Brown (2006) of smaller egg mass was of 73% that is a much higher value that the ideal ratio of the egg. Also the Met + Cys: Lysine ratio that was around 89 % in the profile of DEGUSSA (2006), near value to the ideal ratio in the profile of the egg that is of 88% (Jais et al., 1995), and the profile of ISA Brown (2006) this ratio was lower of around 86 %, and were probably one of the factors responsible for the reduction in egg mass. Because is possible that hens consuming diets of DEGUSSA (2006) became more efficient in utilizing the dietary amino acids. The group of egg-laying fed with the diet with profile from Rostagno et al., 2005; DEGUSSA (2006) and the N.R.C. (1994) had a higher specific gravity of egg than the profile of ISA Brown (2006). These results are probably as consequence of a smaller feed intake, nutrients and energy for the group the ISA Brown, since according to Waldroup and Hellwing (1995) and Harms et al. (1998) reported that a high relation exists between the egg weight and the quality of the shell, and that it can be associated to the Met  + Cys level in the diet. The highest values Haugh units of the eggs was obtained with the profiles of ideal protein from Rostagno et al. (2005), DEGUSSA (2006) and N.R.C. (1994). However, was a significant interaction (P <0.01) of periods for profiles of ideal protein, in the months of more heat from December until February had a tendency of improvement in the profile of Rostagno et al. (2005) that obtained the values of Haugh units highest compared to the group of ISA Brown (2006) of lower value in each one of the three periods of more heat. The levels of intake of amino acids, especially Met + Cys could also influence in this interaction of the periods for profiles, in view that the consumption of these nutrients was reduced significantly according the periods were but hot since according to the reports of Rodríguez et al. (1996) reported improvements in the Haugh units as the levels of   Met + Cys increased in the diets. However, it doesn’t agree with the results found by Camps and Edghil (1999) not affect the egg quality evaluated to the 40 weeks of age negatively. The basal diets had no effect (P>0.05) on egg weight (g), egg mass (g/day), specific gravity and Haugh units. The diet of DEGUSSA (2006) and basal diet corn-soy meal reached the maximum economic return, being of $ 0.43 for kg of produced egg compared to the diet of ISA Brown (2006) that reached a economic return of $ 0.41 for kg of produced egg.


The profile of Degussa (2006) y Rostagno et al., 2005 reached the better egg production, feed intake and specific gravity, and the response in feed conversion and egg weight were similar in all treatments. The egg mass was better for profile of DEGUSSA (2006) and the birds fed with the profile from Rostagno et al., 2005 reached the biggest values of Haugh as the periods  were  hot compared the layers fed with diets from of profile of ISA Brown (2006). The production parameters and egg quality were not affected for the basal diets. The maximum economic return was reached for the profile of ideal protein of DEGUSSA (2006).


DAVIS, A. T. and AUSTIC, R. E.  (1994) Dietary threonine imbalances alters threonine dehydrogenase activity in isolated hepatic metochondria of chicks and rats. Journal of  Nutrition, 124:1667-1677.

DEGUSSA (2006) Recommendations for total amino acids in laying hen. Nutritional and Technical support. Germany.

HARMS, R.H., RUSSEL, G. B. and HERLOW, H.  (1998) The influence of methionine on commercial laying hens. Journal of Applied Poultry Research, v.7, 45-52.

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (1994) Nutrient Requirement for Poultry. 9th rev. ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

PAVAN, A. C., MÓRI, C., GARCIA, E. A., SCHERER, M. R.  and  PIZZOLANTE, C. C. (2005) Níveis de proteína bruta e de aminoácidos sulfurados totais sobre o desempenho, a qualidade dos ovos e a excreção de nitrogênio de poedeiras de ovos marrons. 568 níveis de proteína bruta e de aminoácidos sulfurados totais sobre o desempenho, a qualidade. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, vol. 34, n.2, pp. 568-574.

RODRIGUES, P. B., BERTECHINI, A. G. and OLIVEIRA, B. L. (1996) Fatores nutricionais que influenciam a qualidade do ovo no segundo ciclo de produção. I. Níveis de aminoácidos sulfurosos totais. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v.25, n.2, pp. 248-260.

ROSTAGNO, H. S., TEIXEIRA, A. L., DONZELE, J. L., GOMEZ, P. C.,  OLIVEIRA, R. F., LOPEZ, D. C., FERREIRA, A. S.  and BARRETO, S. L. (2005) Tablas Brasileñas para Aves y Cerdos. Composición de Alimentos y Requerimientos Nutricionales. 2da Edición. Universidad Federal de Vicosa. Brasil

More information:                                             

Elías  Salvador  Tasayco, Ph.D.

Professor of Animal  Nutrition – FMVZ-UNICA                                                                       

Consultant PRONUTRI – Animal Nutrition


Blog scientific – academic:  https://eliasnutri.wordpress.com/

e-mail:      pronutri@hotmail.comeliasnutri@yahoo.com

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